ao.Univ.-Prof.Dr. Bob Martens - Entwerfen WS 00/01

PRO_TEKTUR

 

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Ausgewählte Projekte:

> Klaus Lengauer / Markus Piribauer
> Michaela Thron / Barbara Wiesner
> Gerald Sonnleitner
> Manfred Mitterer
> Margit Piriwe / Claus Pröglhöf
> Christoph Schabel
> Sabine Kodatsch
> Christian Leppa
> Viktor Loeffler
> Franz Hager


A few years ago implementation of computer-assisted modeling in the course of a Design Studio still was considered a novelty, at present it is common practice. Nowadays students dispose of their very own efficient hard- and software and know how to handle it (intensively and extensively). The preceding creation of a 3D-stock-taking data model certainly turns out to be ôhard graftö. Therefore it does not seem meaningful to have every individual student go through this experience. Thus a 3D-model for common use was made available to the participants. The reconstruction and verification of three-dimensional data from two-dimensional (roughly sketched) ones is to be regarded a problematic issue. Complex spatial correlations often are only to be understood in their specific context by means of pictures and then realized as such. The lush vegetation also added difficulties regarding details of interrelations. The implemented program ArchiCAD, moreover, is associated with other fields of application not actually suggesting the reconstruction of archeological excavation sites.

The ArchiCAD-model data and their conversion proved useful for the design process and as it was made available to the participants no (additional) assignments within the team distracting from the actual design activities were required. Every participant was furnished with an existing reliable data set making up for the impossibility to actually visit the site. Moreover, this three-dimensional model issued view perspectives actually not to be experienced. The virtual experience, however, also had some shortcomings, scale being probably the most significant one: Getting the gist of spatial extension obviously does not automatically occur during a virtual walk-through. Many a student had to rely on photographic material and the videotape in order to grasp the actual size of the site. When considering the students design work, the enormous variety of approaches regarding a topic not really inviting creativity is striking. A profound argument for tackling problem situations not really invented for the architectural community, but calling for ônovel-typeö solutions.



AUFGABE

Architekturen (wie auch alle anderen Monumente der frühen Maya-Hochkultur) in den tropischen Regionen Mittelamerikas sind einer zunehmenden Zerstörung ausgesetzt. Diese wird einerseits - wie schon in den vergangenen Jahrhunderten - durch die extremen klimatischen Bedingungen verursacht; andererseits durch Freilegungen und daran anschließende fragwürdige Schutzmaßnahmen. An solcher Stelle sind Konzepte vonnöten, welche mittels konkreter baulicher Ansätze neue Wege im Umgang mit Orten und Werken dieser exotischen altamerikanischen Kultur aufzeigen. Anders als in europäischen Breiten, wo sich archäologische Fundstellen weitgehend unter dem Niveau der heutigen Stadt finden lassen, zeichnen sich die Relikte der Mayastädte - außer in Zonen des Regenwaldes - selbst im nicht ergrabenen Zustand als Hügelkuppen in der Landschaft ab. Die bis zu 60m aufragenden Erhöhungen bergen ihrerseits wiederum Vorgängerbauten, welche zumeist schichtweise überlagert wurden. Diese Zeugnisse der Vergangenheit sind nach ihrer Freilegung vorwiegend durch das tropische Klima und durch mangelnde Schutzmaßnahmen gefährdet. Darüberhinaus läßt die Forderung nach adäquater Präsentation zu wünschen übrig. Ein besonderer Fund gelang der mexikanischen Altertumsbehörde 1998 als im Hauptkomplex von Ek Balam, Yucatán (Bauwerk 1, 155m breit, 75m tief und etwa 32m hoch) unter dem frontalen Treppenaufgang die überaus gut erhaltene Hauptfassade eines Vorgängerbauwerks zutage trat, welche einen gewaltigen Racheneingang zeigte. Seit ihrer Freilegung wird die Fassade unter einem provisorischen Palmblattdach bzw. durch blaue Kunststoffplanen geschützt. Besuchern ist der Zutritt bisher nicht gestattet. Da der Ort sich jedoch inmitten touristischer Erschließung befindet, der Fund darüberhinaus nicht nur von wissenschaftlicher sondern auch von künstlerischer Bedeutung ist, gilt es, eine entsprechende Lösung zu finden, die sowohl den Schutz als auch eine adäquate Präsentation des Werkes gewährleistet.

LEISTUNGSUMFANG

Dieses Entwurfsprogramm wird wöchentlich betreut. Zur Abgabe ist ein Entwurfskonzept samt vollumfänglicher Darstellung, Bau eines Modells im Maßstab 1:20 zu erarbeiten.

 

Klaus Lengauer / Markus Piribauer

A fiber-reinforced membrane is stretched as HP-surface between two prestressed arches over the west part of "building 1". The two tracing points of the arches are the only points of contact with "building 1", the two bracing pedestals divert the tensile load into the ground on the north and south side of the pyramid. Thus no major interventions regarding the basic substance are required. The membrane construction makes a distinctive contrast to "building 1" resulting in a landmark to be made out as such over long distances thus emphasizing the significance of the excavated treasure. Moreover, the view of "building 1" is not obscured.

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Michaela Thron / Barbara Wiesner

The membrane roof in form of a leaf lends the roofing lightness and ease hardly affecting the excavation. The translucent membrane results in substantially antiglare light suited for the exposition of details at the find site “jaw area” without cast shadows. The “suspended” roof, moreover, does not impair any simultaneous excavation work. The alternatively developed instrumentation makes for a practically free view over the excavation due to the diagonal placement of the arches. The well-preserved side, however, is almost entirely covered. And also here the construction seems light and visibly contrasts well to the archeological finds. The construction measures required are kept as insignificant as possible.

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Gerald Sonnleitner

Durability and resistance of materials and simple handling also applying to assembly of construction were a prerequisite as well as a high degree of prefabrication. A support system was put to use carrying itself due to its clasping connection without any further braces or anchorage or mass-intensive foundations braced into itself to provide sufficient solidity to stabilize the membrane also minding exposure to heavy wind attack. The arch elements are made up of prefabricated tubular steel profile sections connected with articulation points at their junctions braced by means of steel cable. The base bracing points of the arches make for wide-range distribution of loads and for gentle subsoil diversion.

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Manfred Mitterer

This design idea results in the development of a large-scale roof: a “suspended” construction covering the complete structure consisting of a spatial trussed structure forming a pane rigidly connected to the clamped–in supports. Placement of supports was reduced to the absolute minimum in order to keep interventions as small as possible. Membranes covered the individual sections. The centric pull ring was braced along the upper chords. An additional ramp system is suspended from the bottom chords, which is to serve both as protection for the construction against wear and tear by visitors and lends itself to “strolling through the historical site”. At the observation points the ramps grow into platforms.

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Margit Piriwe / Claus Pröglhöf

The main idea aims at creating a roof offering comprehensive protection but not affecting the view to the sky. Thus it does not only cover one structure but practically the entire excavation site. The development of systematics was attempted regarding variation of clear spans, in order to react accordingly to a given situation. The accessibility of the building issues the scientist and also the visitor unusual insights, outlooks and overviews. Destructive intrusions by tourists might be totally avoided with this kind of handling. This super-roof, also to be equipped with photovoltaic elements, undoubtedly represents an added tourist attraction.

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Christoph Schabel

The challenge for the present project was the development of a lightweight construction contrasting from the excavation stock rather than blending in. By rotation out of the axes a permanent intervention affecting impact of the excavation is avoided. Location-independent implementation of the construction was to be provided as well as the subsequent adaptation specifically meeting the requirements of the very site. Several levels drawn up in horizontal echelons preserve the view to the outside. An inset gallery provides a view from a distance over the excavation site. The elements used are modular and can be matched in differing variations.

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Sabine Kodatsch

The finds to be protected are roofed-in by a number of individual and also combined and connected umbrella constructions. The umbrellas developed distinctively contrast from the existing roofing which hides the objects covered-in almost entirely. Different types of umbrellas can be made up from the units issued (umbrella with support, two connecting braces resp. stands and an intermediate member). In narrow areas this construction also lends itself to direct contact with the existing building structures whereas it is to be used freestanding in larger space. The umbrellas may be adapted according to weather conditions, the site as such and the finds to be protected. Additional overlapping of the umbrellas provides an increased protection for the finds.

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Christian Leppa

An extremely simple modular construction system to be put together by the team of archeologists at the site without any specific skills or knowledge (merely according to the plain assembly instructions) was developed. Lightness and stability are granted by the combined use of concrete-filled tires, steel hollow sections and air-filled membrane chambers. Wire ropes brace the roofing-in in the ground. No additional intervention regarding the historic matter is necessary. The roof is collapsible when membrane chambers are deflated and thus is dismantled very quickly.

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Viktor Loeffler

This project approach is based on the idea of a protective shield. Differentiating of individual spaces and their configurative integration in the course of detail work makes for a tightrope walk between design and pragmatic problem solving. The protecting gibbets emphasize the theatrical effect of the archeological site.

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Franz Hager

An easy-to-produce instrumentation was to be developed which would also lend itself to adaptations in line with differing topographical circumstances. The shape in the form of an abstracted jaguar (“Ek Balam” meaning black jaguar) represents an additional eye-catcher acting as decorative element as an additional tourist attraction. Artificial lighting at the head replaces the sunlight whereby spot lamps aim at emphasizing the plasticity of the discovered relief.

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˙˙˙   Beratung: Dr. Wolf-Michael Tschuppik, Kontakt: www.rohtangarchitects.com
   Aufnahmen: Markus Ziegelwanger, Kontakt: photographer@blax.at
   Webdesign: multivitamedia Markus Piribauer, Kontakt: www.multivitamedia.at